battle of the granicus

Ancient History Encyclopedia, 20 Dec 2011. Some believe he wanted to make a point for their taking Persian money while others say it was mostly anger and the near-death experience that provoked him. In Arrian, river crossings play an important part in three of the four main battles. 2 They are of a piece with Diodorus' account of the battle at Thebes in 335 B.C., when the Thebans were portrayed as fighting a battle ‘in front of the city’ (as the Trojans did), Alexander made unsporting use of reserves and the contest was in two rounds, the first remarkable for the epic use of missiles (Diod. Otherwise he describes the combat in the same way, including Alexander's brush with death and his personal combat with all the Persian nobles. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Updates? Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire.Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. The result of the Granicus battle must have reaffirmed the faith placed by the Persian king, Darius III, in Memnon. In addition, the one weapon unique to the Persians, the scythed chariot, was almost useless on the muddy riverbank. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Battle of the Granicus. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. As the Persians fell back, Alexander, instead of pursuing the retreating Persians, turned his attention to the Greek mercenaries who, in turn, pleaded for mercy. The statues were eventually set up in Dium, a city in Macedon at the foot of Mount Ol… (2) The sideways movement of Alexander in … During the engagement at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander and his army did not have to engage Darius III and the massive hordes of the Persian directly.At the time Alexander was not seen as a threat and it was thought in Persia his invasion was going to be short lived. Wasson, Donald L. "Battle of the Granicus." in southern Anatolia he defeated a much larger force under the direct command of Darius. Battle Summary Map - This map shows, in Pseudo 3D, the most important movements of the Battle. And so in May 334 BC the Persian and Macedonian armies faced each other on opposite sides of the Granicus River. Rupert Matthews has been fascinated by battlefields since his father took him to Waterloo when he was nine years old. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. How wide was the river? Although advised by Greek mercenary Memnon of Rhodes to fall back and starve Alexander into retreat, the Persian commander Arsames decided to confront the invaders on the Granicus River, east of the Dardanelles. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Assemble for battle on the Granicus. Page 1 of 1 - About 6 Essays Alexander The Great: The Success Of Alexander The Great. Alexander rejected Parmenion’s plea; the battle would begin that afternoon but would last barely an hour. After succeeding his father as king of Macedon, Alexander continued the planned invasion of the Persian Empire. Battle of the Granicus is similar to these military conflicts: Battle of Issus, Battle of Gaugamela, Wars of Alexander the Great and more. According to adjusted modern accounts, the Persians lost 10-20 percent of their forces and two-thirds of their commanders. And so in May 334 BC the Persian and Macedonian armies faced each other on opposite sides of the Granicus River. Questions or concerns? Ancient History Encyclopedia. Battle of Granicus, (May 334 bce). Alexander replied, according to Plutarch, that it would “disgrace the Hellespont should he fear the Granicus.” The historian Arrian spoke of this encounter by saying that Alexander realized that the Persians did not fear him because they did not know him. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Throughout the battle, however, the Greek mercenary infantry remained in its position and did not move. As Alexander rose from the waters of the Granicus, he noticed Mithridates, Darius’s son-in-law, riding with a squadron of cavalry - detached from the main Persian forces. Books Soon, however, he would meet the King of Persia himself. Last modified December 20, 2011. License. Arrian wrote: He himself led the right wing with sounding of trumpets, and the men raising the war-cry to Enyallus. While Alexander and his men were at Troy, the Persians held a council of local satraps to discuss the arrival of the young Macedonian and possible strategies to defend against him. 2 reasons. As he was expanding eastward, Alexander would have three major battles with the Persians, and the first was at the crossing of the Granicus River in 334 BC. The Greek mercenary commander’s strategy had been sound. Upon arriving on the opposite bank of the river, the fight turned to a hand-to-hand confrontation. 2) The river bed was uneven, meaning the water was deep in places and hard to cross. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. Darius finally advanced against him but was defeated at Issus in the autumn of 333. Louvre, Paris. Alexander quickly ran him through. Greek mercenaries serving in the Persian army tried to surrender, but Alexander treated them as traitors. Ancient History Encyclopedia. This contribution has not yet been formally edited by Britannica. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Wasson, D. L. (2011, December 20). His army consisted chiefly of Macedonians, but with some allied Greeks. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The best account in the ancient sources, which include Diodorus Siculus (1st century bc) and Plutarch’s Life of Alexander (2nd century ad), is that of Arrian’s Anabasis (2nd century ad), which draws directly from contemporary accounts. Memnon, a high-ranking Greek mercenary loyal to Darius, suggested applying a burned-earth policy - to destroy crops, farms, and villages - depriving Alexander of any possible provisions. Besides, the newly appointed king was more concerned with possible rebellion and unrest among the local satraps. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Battle of the Granicus. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Alexander's victory at Granicus shattered the myth of Persian invincibility and launched the persona of Alexander as one of history's great commanders. Web. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. They, of course, considered Persian warfare superior to the tactics of invading Greeks. The first victorious engagement of Alexander the Great ’s invasion of the Persian Empire established the Macedonians on enemy soil. Was this a tactical error or pure arrogance? With the loss of a number of their leaders, the Persians became disorganized and, with morale destroyed, retreated. Rhoesaces, a Persian satrap commander, noticed the attack upon Mithridates and raised his sword at Alexander, slicing off part of his plume and cracking his helmet. Mosaic of Alexander the Great discovered in the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy. This conspicuousness did not escape the Persians whose major objective became to kill Alexander. Although suffering a number of casualties, Alexander began to gain the advantage, and many of the Persians began to retreat. Battle of the Granicus: Amazon.es: Miller, Frederic P., Vandome, Agnes F., McBrewster, John: Libros en idiomas extranjeros He announced the offensive as a Greek revenge for the Persian invasions of Greece in 490 bce and 480 bce. In total it numbered nearly 40,000 men according to the Greek historian Arrian, slightly larger than Alexander’s 37,000-strong force. Written by Donald L. Wasson, published on 20 December 2011 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He is eager to pass knowledge on to his students. To honor all who had died in battle, Alexander buried both Greek and Persians alike (although the Persians normally burned their dead). Warfare is generally understood to be the controlled and systematic... Battle of the Granicus by Charles Le Brun, 1665 CE Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Fought in Asia Minor, Granicus was the first major victory of Alexander over the Persians. Although causing considerable damage to the attacking center, the Persian weaponry did not match well against the Macedonians – light javelins versus 15-foot lances. 60 - 90 feet wide. Foss and E. Badian, “The Battle of the Granicus: A New Look,” in Ancient Macedonia II, Thessaloniki, 1977, pp. Otras versiones: español English français magyar македонски Esta es una imagen retocada, lo que significa que ha sido alterada digitalmente de su versión original. Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. He saved Alexander's life at the Battle of the Granicus in 334 BC and was killed by him in a drunken quarrel six years later. Alexander attacked, slashing Mithridates across the face. The first victorious engagement of Alexander the Great’s invasion of the Persian Empire established the Macedonians on enemy soil. One unique and problematic situation for the Persians was the positioning of their cavalry on the banks of the Granicus; the Greek mercenary infantry - 5,000 strong - was placed behind them. The council decided to put the arriving Macedonians on the defensive by gathering their combined forces and wait for Alexander at the River Granicus. Descubre The Battle of the Granicus River de Columbia Studio Chorus en Amazon Music. Spithridates, another Persian commander, raised his own weapon to attack Alexander, but Cleitus the Black attacked him first, severing Spithridates’s arm, saving Alexander’s life. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Battle of Granicus, (May 334 bce). Parmenion with the Thessalians encircled to the left of the Greeks while Alexander and his Companions positioned themselves to the right. Sources concerning Alexander are varied - 25-30 Companions - possibly 120 in total. Why the Granicus? Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Battle_of_the_Granicus/. A map showing the locations of battles in ancient Greece. 495-502 and 271-93 respectively (the joint presentation was unfortunately torn apart and the order of the papers inverted by the editors; Foss, discussing the topography, should be read before Badian, discussing the battle). The Battle of the Granicus in May 334 BCE was Alexander the Great's (356-323 BCE) first major victory against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Darius’s Greek mercenaries were largely massacred, but…, …an Achaemenid army at the Granicus and, by the following year, had won most of Asia Minor and reached Cilicia. Half died in battle; the rest were sent as chained slaves to work in Macedonian mines. fight for him without question. They were intent upon attacking the Macedonians in the water where the footing was slippery and difficult. After the death of his father Phillip II of Macedon (r. 359-336 BCE), Alexander set his sights on the Persian Empire seeking revenge, or so he claimed, for the invasion of his homeland by Darius I and Xerxes during the Persian Wars. Alexander had lined his forces on the western banks of the river; Parmenion commanded the left while Alexander (with his eight bodyguards), his Companion cavalry forces, and light troops stationed themselves on the far right. THE BATTLE OF THE GRANICUS RIVER 75 dawn battle sub luce was padded out with details from Arrian's (or his source's) account; but at least the Itinerarium did not transfer those details to a different battle-scene. Let us know. He had wished to avoid a pitched battle, conduct a scorched-earth policy in Asia, fortify maritime and naval bases on the coast and cut Alexander off from the sea. After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and democracy to the cities. Alexander gambled that winning an early victory would allow him to gather supplies for his troops from conquered territory as the harvest ripened. After this victory against his satraps, he would meet Darius in battle twice, at the Battle of Issus and then at the Battle of Gaugamela. 300 suits of Persian armor were sent home to Athens to remind the Greeks that Granicus was only one step in the war of revenge against the Persians. Of the 5,000 Greek mercenaries only 2,000 survived, and they were sent to Macedon to work the mines; the rest were slaughtered. Back home, statues honoring the 25 fallen Companions were erected at the sanctuary of Zeus at Dium near Mount Olympus. One unique and problematic situation for the Persians was the positioning of their cavalry on the banks of the Granicus; the Greek mercenary infantry - 5,000 strong - was placed behind them. He ordered Lysippus, considered perhaps the greatest sculptor of the day, to make bronze statues of the 25 Companion cavalrymen who fell in the initial feint attack. In May 334 BCE he had his first opportunity when he faced the Persians on the banks of the River Granicus. Ancient History Encyclopedia. As the Macedonian forces neared the river, Parmenion, one of Alexander’s most loyal generals and commander of his left flank, advised Alexander they should wait until morning before attacking. Interested in participating in the Publishing Partner Program? Some historians believe this idea cost the Persians the battle. Battle of the Granicus (Alexandros) The Battle of the Granicus was the only major battle during the Macedonian Invasion of Asia, which saw the confrontation of the Macedonian and Greek invasion force, under the command of Alexander III, against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. 15 Jan 2021. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. This army included a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. …by three satraps, at the Granicus (modern Kocabaş) River, near the Sea of Marmara (May/June 334). Battle Granicus-en.svg; Autor: Battle Granicus-en.svg: Andrei Nacu, from the English Wiki; derivative work: Gizmo II ¿Eu? Related Content Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Was this a tactical error … Although numbers vary among the various ancient sources, modern accounts number the Persians at 10,000 cavalry and 5,000 Greek mercenary infantry. Darius fled from the field, abandoning his mother, wife, and children.…. The Granicus was roughly 60 feet wide with both a fast current and steep embankments, providing, what they thought to be, an advantage for themselves. The local satraps rejected the idea in part because Memnon was Greek but also because they did not want their lands destroyed. Alexander had crossed the Hellespont with his combined Macedonian and Greek forces and stepped upon the shores of Anatolia. Omissions? Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. The Granicus has long been identified with the river now known as the Kocabaş Cay, and on this point, there is now general agreement.222 (When I wrote my original thesis, the prevailing view amongst scholars on this subject was that the Granicus River had not changed its course since the time of this battle. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Granicus-334BCE. The Battle of the Granicus was the first major engagement between Alexander III the Great commanding his army of Macedonians, Greeks, and Thracians facing off with the vast armies of the Achaemenid Empire under the high command of Darius III.During this engagement the Persian forces would be lead by general Memnon would be defeated by the combined assault of Alexander. His companions rescued him, and the rest of the Macedonian forces succeeded in joining the fight. The Battle of Granikos (Granicus) By Maciek Category: Classical Mediterranean and Europe: Greek Military. Memnon himself led the Persian center. At the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. In The Life of Alexander the Great historian Plutarch discussed Alexander’s trip to Troy where he honored Homer’s hero Achilles. It allowed Alexander to replenish his empty supply stores and encouraged some key Greek states to rebel against the Persians. The Persian army consisted predominantly of cavalry but it also had a substantial number of Greek mercenary infantry. Although these articles may currently differ in style from others on the site, they allow us to provide wider coverage of topics sought by our readers, through a diverse range of trusted voices. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Wasson, Donald L. "Battle of the Granicus." Together with the lack of true leadership - besides Memnon - the battle was lost before it was begun. Losses: Macedonian, 400 dead and 2,000 wounded of 40,000; Persian, 5,000 dead and 2,000 captured of 50,000. Corrections? Alexander the Great in Combatby Warner Brothers (Copyright, fair use). Alexander led a charge of his elite Companion cavalry across the steep-sided stream, but the Persian cavalry launched a countercharge, and Alexander was surrounded and disarmed. The Persian cavalry could neither move forward because of the river banks nor pull back because of the location of the infantry. 1) It had steep (and in some places sheer) banks making it hard to climb. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy , it was here where Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes . xvii 11.3, 12.1–2). Cite This Work It allowed Alexander to replenish his empty supply stores and encouraged some key Greek states to rebel against the Persians. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. However, the battle very nearly cost Alexander his life. Escúchalo en streaming y sin anuncios o compra CDs y MP3s ahora en Amazon.es. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Diodorus describes a north-south battle, over open ground, that commenced in the morning after Alexander had crossed the Granicus. His goal was simple: to defeat Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) and conquer the vast Persian Empire. Thank you! In addition, the one weapon unique to the Persians, the scythed chariot, was almost useless on the muddy riverbank. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. We must get used to these figures as he does not provide any more ahead of his account of the Battle of the Granicus, which begins in chapter 16. And this obstinacy of his to cut off these experienced desperate men cost him the lives of more of his own soldiers than all the battle before, besides those who were wounded. At the Granicus, as has been noted, Alexander, in Arrian’s account, had to fight his way across the river, but in the account of Diodorus, the battle is fought on the other side of the river. Start studying The Battle of Granicus. After Granicus there was little resistance against Alexander and his forces. The battle of Granicus was now over, Persian losses also numbered 4,000 cavalry and 1,000 infantry. Amid the sound of trumpets, Alexander and his men plunged into the water and up the opposing bank diagonally. Upon stabilizing rebellious conditions among the various Greek city-states, he crossed the Hellespont and travelled along the northern coast of Anatolia (present-day Turkey) avoiding the mountain ranges of the northern uplands to the site of ancient Troy. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. He entered the ford, keeping his line always extended obliquely in the direction in which the stream turned itself aside, in order that the Persians might not fall upon him as he was emerging from the water with his men in column, but that he himself might, as far as practicable, encounter them with a broad line. In the early years of Alexander’s career as ruler of Macedonia and leader of the army, his determination for conquest was shared by his men. As more Persians joined the attack against the Macedonian center, attention was drawn away from Alexander. In the center of the traditional phalanx were the Thessalian cavalry and additional light troops. The battle on the Granicus [16.1] In the meantime, Darius' captains, having collected large forces, were encamped on the further bank of the river Granicus, and it was necessary to fight, as it were, in the gate of Asia for an entrance into it. Alexander’s experienced second-in-command Parmenion advocated attacking the next day, but his impetuous commander overrode him and decided … At the Battle of the Granicus River in 334 B.C. In November of 333 BCE, Alexander and Darius would face each other at Issus. By crossing into Asia before the campaigning season, it caught the Persians off guard. Little of him was known to the Persians and King Darius felt little or no inclination to meet him, believing, instead, his trusted commander, Memnon, and the local governors (or satraps) could handle the young upstart. The Persian plan to tempt Alexander across the river and kill him in the melee almost succeeded; but the Persian line broke, and Alexander’s victory was complete. Alexander became the aggressor sending, from the center, Companion cavalry, lancers and light troops across the river first. The Battle of the Granicus River In chapter 15 of the Life Plutarch tells us that when Alexander left Macedon his army was between 30,000 – 43,000 infantry and 4,000 – 5,000 cavalry in size. Map of the Battle of the Granicusby US Military Academy (Public Domain). The Persian cavalry could neither move forward because of the river banks nor pull back because of the location of the infantry. Please move this article to Battle of the Granicus River, if you could.--Ariobarza 13:29, 1 March 2008 (UTC)Ariobarza talk Oppose This (or rather Battle of the Granicus, where the article actually is) is the usual English name, and the only meaning of Granicus; the proposed title is as redundant and unnatural as Battle of the Marne River. The Greeks lost around 300 to 400 men and the Persians up to 4,000, mostly as they retreated from the battle. According to Arrian and other sources, Alexander made himself extremely conspicuous both by the “brightness of his arms” and the “respectful countenance of his staff.” He was also quite noticeable by the large white plume on his helmet. The Persian army consisted predominantly of cavalry but it also had a substantial number of Greek mercenary infantry. Alexander’s forces numbered 13,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry. The Battle of the Granicus River. The victory left Asia Minor wide open to the Macedonian invasion. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. After receiving word from his scouts of the Persians' location at Granicus, Alexander advanced towards the river; he had come to realize that he must defeat the Persians to gain the necessary resources to continue on his quest of conquering Persia. The battle would begin in the afternoon but would last barely an hour. By Alexanders order, all who had fallen in the Battle of the Granicus, including the Persian leaders and Greek mercenaries, were buried with military honors. Plutarch wrote: He passed the Hellespont, and at Troy sacrificed to Minerva, and honoured the memory of the heroes who were buried there, with solemn libations, especially Achilles, whose gravestone be anointed, and with his friends, as the ancient custom is, ran naked about his sepulcher, and crowned it with garlands, declaring how happy he esteemed him, in having while he lived so faithful a friend, and when he was dead, so famous a poet to proclaim his actions. A map showing the Empire of Alexander the Great, his conquests... Alexander the Great: Journey to the End of the Earth, Alexander the Great at War: His army - His battles - His Enemies, Granicus 334 BC: Alexander’s First Persian Victory, Alexander the Great at the Battle of Granicus: A Campaign in Context, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. These articles have not yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected. He doesn't mention the aborted attack the evening before. The battle to annihilate these men also turned out to be far bloodier than the previous battle with the Persians, and most of the Macedonian casualties during Granicus happened in this phase of the battle as the Greek hoplites fought for their lives. Alexander's casualties were non existent, with losses of 200 cavalry and 100 infantry. To the surviving relatives of his fallen soldiers, Alexander granted immunity from taxation and public service. For a brief moment, both armies stood across from each other in silence. A map showing the route that Alexander the Great took to conquer... A map showing the Battle of the Granicus River, May 334 BCE. The Battle of the Granicus was the first major engagement between Alexander III the Great commanding his army of Macedonians, Greeks, and Thracians facing off with the vast armies of the Achaemenid Empire under the high command of Darius III. Why did Alexander ignore the pleas of the mercenaries? After a tough struggle, Alexander’s heavy cavalry broke through the Persian army, the Macedonian phalanx followed through the gap, and the Persians fled. https://www.ancient.eu/Battle_of_the_Granicus/. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes . Some historians believe this idea cost the Persians the battle. The Persians responded with a hail of arrows and javelins. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The spoils of war - gold and rich cloth - were sent home to Alexander’s mother Olympias. Plutarch spoke of this encounter saying: The mercenary Greeks, who, making a stand upon a rising ground, desired quarter, which Alexander, guided rather by passion than judgment refused to grant, and charging them himself first, had his horse (not Bucephalus) killed under him. The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire.Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The Battle of Granicus River - 334 BCThe Battle of Granicus was the first battle between Alexander The Great and the Persian Empire. In the meantime, more information about the article and the author can be found by clicking on the author’s name. 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